Agnisambhavam - Sanskrit Mahākāvya (Epic) with Modern Methodology:

A Study

 

Sandeep Namdev Dhikale

Department of Peace Studies, MIT World Peace University, Pune, Maharashtra, Bharat.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sandeep.dhikale@mitwpu.edu.in

 

ABSTRACT:

Sanskrit language has the liquidity as many compositions are being composed until date. It is observed that the modern composers sometimes follow the characteristics of Mahākāvyaas elaborated by Sahityashastrakara’s like Bhāmaha, Daṇḍī, Rudraṭa, Viśvanātha etc. Sometimes, some Poets have taken the liberty to present modern Hero’s and their heroic acts while composing the Mahākāvya.

Poetic expressions of powerful feelings play an important role to inculcate values, ethics, and virtues. Literature, in the form of poems, stories, articles, essays etc. definitely stand like lighthouse in our life.

The paper highlights the ‘Wings of Fire’, an Autobiography of Dr. APJ Abdul Kalām written with Arun Tiwari in 1999. The paper aims to study the adaptation by Pt. Sri. Kishor Limaye who composed the same text and the ‘Agnisambhavam' Mahākāvya using very simple, yet effective Sanskrit and modern methodologies. Using an ancient tool of composing Mahākāvya with modern techniques like using research methodologies (footnotes, endnotes, RoL etc.) is a pioneering and emerging trend in Sanskrit. This paper is an attempt to focus on ‘Agnisambhavam' Sanskrit Mahākāvya, composed by Pt. Sri. Kishor Limaye.

 

KEYWORDS: Modern Sanskrit Epic, Agnisambhavam, Agnisambhavam Mahākāvya, Modern Mahākāvya, Sanskrit Mahakavya.

 

 

INTRODUCTION:

The word Mahākāvya is composed of the words "great" and "kavya." It means "excellent poetry" (poem). Mahākāvya is distinct from the other Kāvya because of its subject matter and style of writing. Mahākāvya are extremely significant in Sanskrit literature. This is why Dain, Vivantha Kavirja, and others who study rhetoric have discussed it appropriately. In English, Mahākāvya is referred to as an epic poem or an epic poetry. It is a lengthy, narrative poem. Usually, the story is about amazing people who interacted with gods or other supernatural beings and changed the world for subsequent generations. "Epic" is derived from the Latin word "epicus," which is derived from the Ancient Greek adjective "epikos," which is derived from the word "epos," which means "word, story, or poem." 

 

There are many scholars in the tradition of Lakshana Granthas (Poetics / Sahityashastra / Kavyashastra). Some of them are unknown because of the unavailability of their texts (Kohala, Tumbaru, Dattila, Mataṅga, Kātyāyana, Rāhula, Udbhaṭa, Lollaṭa, Śaṅkuka, Bhaṭṭanāyaka, Bhaṭṭayaṃtra, Kīrtidhara, Mātṛgupta, Subandhū, Aśmakuṭṭa, Bādarāyaṇa, Śātakarṇī Nakhakuṭṭa) and there are many of them who are well known to the field of poetics. (Bharata, Medhāvirudra (Medhāvī), Bhāmaha, Daṇḍī, Vāmana, Udbhaṭa, Rudraṭa, Śaṅkuka, Ānandavardhana, Rudrabhaṭṭa, Rājaśekhara, Mukulabhaṭṭa, Dhanañjaya, Bhaṭṭanāyaka, Lollaṭa, Abhinavagupta, Kuntaka, Sāgaranandin, Bhojarāja, Mahimabhaṭṭa, Kṣemendra, Mammaṭa, Hemacandra, Rāmacandra-Guṇacandra, Vāgbhaṭa, Ruyyaka, Amaracandra-Arisiṃha, Amaracandra, Jayadeva, Śāradātanaya, Śiṅgabhūpāla, Vidyādhara, Vidyānātha, Bhānudatta, Deveśvara, Viśvanātha, Rūpagosvāmī, Paramānandadāsa (Kavi Karṇapūra) Keśavamiśra, Appayyadīkṣita, Kavicandra, Jagannātha) Participation by Acharya Bhamah is required for the Lakshana Granthas custom of providing a critical review of a Mahākāvya. The subsequent Acharyas assumed his appearance, with little modifications here and there. In his Shityadarpaa, Acharya Vivantha describes in detail the most essential characteristics of a Mahkavya. Indian epic poetry is composed in Classical Sanskrit using the Mahākāvya style, also known as Sargabandha. People frequently refer to it as "the great kvya" or "the court epic." In the realm of Sanskrit literature, this is the most revered style.

Sargabandho mahākāvyaṃ tatrako nāyakā suraḥ

sadvaṃśaḥ kṣatriyo vāpi dhīrodāttaguṇanvitā ||

ekavaṃśabhavā bhūpā kulajā bahavo'pi vā

śṛṃgāravīraśāntānā meko'ṅgī rasa iṣyate ।।

aṅgāni sarvepi rasāḥ sarve nāṭakasandhayaḥ |

itihāsodbhavaṃ vṛttamanyadvā sajjanāśrayam

catvārastasya vargāḥ syusteṣvekaṃ ca phalaṃ bhavet

ādau namaskriyāśīrvā vastunirdeśa eva vā

kvacinnindā khalādīnāṃ satāṃ ca guṇakīrttanam

ekavṛttamayaiḥ padyairavasāne'nyavṛttakaiḥ

nātisvalpā nātidīrghā sargā aṣṭādhikā iva

nānāvṛttamayaḥ kvāpi sargaḥ kaścana dṛśyate

sargānte bhāvisargasya kathāyāḥ sūcanaṃ bhavet

sandhyāsūryendurajanī pradoṣadhvāntavāsarāḥ

prātarmadhyāhna mṛgayā śailaturvanasāgarāḥ

sambhogavipralambhau ca munisvargapurādhvarāḥ

raṇaprayāṇopayamamantraputrodayādayaḥ

varṇanīyā yathāyogyaṃ sāṅgopāṅgā amī iha |

kavairvṛttasya vā nāmnā nāyakasyetarasya vā

nāmāsya sargopādepakathayā sarganāma tu 1

 

According to tradition, the important elements of Mahākāvya (Epic) are –

(1) Division into Cantos

(2) Great and profound subject

(3) Sublime hero

(4) Interpretation of four classes

(5) Rising of the hero

(6) The element of righteousness

(7) Drama’s Characteristic-Five divisions

(8) Inclusion of nature of people and various sentiments

(9) Prosperity-Description of Moonrise, Seasons etc.

Generally, we find all these elements in the Sanskrit Mahakavyas.

 

AGNISAMBHAVAM MAHĀKĀVYA:

‘Agnisambhavam' is a Sanskrit Mahākāvya, composed in the 21st century by Pt. Sri. Kishor Limaye. He is native of Maharashtra and is currently working as an Acharya in Bhāva-Saurabha Gurukul campus of Tattvajñāna VidyāpīṭhaS Jīvana Prajñā Vidyālaya in Nasik, Founded by Rev. Padmavibhūṣaṇa Pāṃḍuraṃgaśāstrī Āṭhavale.  ‘Agnisambhavam’ mahākāvya is a poetry narrating the life of Bharatratna Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, who is known as a Missile man of India and was the most loving Hon’ble President of India. ‘Agnisambhavam' Mahākāvya is an epic poem in 14 cantos in about 841 verses. The description begins with expressing gratitude about the nation, the scientists and goes on to write about the virtues birth, childhood, education, friendship of Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam and so on.

 

The topic of the poem ‘Agnisambhavam' is a biography of a hero, a visionary scientist, Bharatratna Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. All the events of his life such as his childhood, education, work area, etc. have been portrayed by Pt. Sri. Kishor Limaye in the form of a biography in Sanskrit verses. This complete pedagogical characterization is composed in about 841 versesin 14 cantos.

 

AGNISAMBHAVAM MAHĀKĀVYA (CANTOS):

Pt. Kishor Limaye has composed the Agnisambhavam Mahākāvya in 14 chapters. All the chapters are named as a Prakaraṇa. The names of prakaranas are as following –

 

Canto No

Name of the Canto

1.

Parivāraprakaraṇam (परिवारप्रकरणम्)

2.

Bālyaprakaraṇam (बाल्यप्रकरणम्)

3.

Śikṣāprakaraṇam (शिक्षाप्रकरणम्)

4.

Mahāvidyālayaprakaraṇam (महाविद्यालयप्रकरणम्)

5.

Caritanirmāṇaprakaraṇam (चरितनिर्माणप्रकरणम्)

6.

Avakāśasaṃśodhanaprakaraṇam (अवकाशसंशोधनप्रकरणम्)

7.

Vikramasārābhāīprakaraṇam (विक्रमसाराभाईप्रकरणम्)

8.

Eselvhīthrīprakaraṇam (एस्एल्व्हीथ्रीप्रकरणम्)

9.

Dhairyadarśanaprakaraṇam (धैर्यदर्शनप्रकरणम्)

10.

Ḍīārḍīelprakaraṇam (डीआर्डीएल्प्रकरणम्)

11.

Āyajīemaḍīpīprakaraṇam (आयजीएमडीपीप्रकरणम्)

12.

Netṛtvaguṇadarśanaprakaraṇam (नेतृत्वगुणदर्शनप्रकरणम्)

13.

Agniprakṣepaṇaprakaraṇam (अग्निप्रक्षेपणप्रकरणम्)

14.

Saṃsiddhiprakaraṇam (संसिद्धिप्रकरणम्)

 

CANTO AND VERSE WISE EVENTS/EPISODES:

Pt. Kishor Limaye has described canto and verse wise events/episodes in Agnisambhavam Mahākāvya. There are episodes described with verse number and with the reference2 from the book ‘Wings of Fire’ the autobiography of Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam.

 

In footnote section of each canto (Prakarana) Pt. Kishor Limaye has given a chart where the serial number, name of the Prakarana (Canto), major events and episodes, count of the shlokas and the reference page numbers from ‘Wings of Fire’ are cited.

 

FOOTNOTES (SPECIAL NOTES):

Agnisambhavam Mahākāvya, in its footnotes, shares the special notes about the character and its relationship for the benefit of the reader in terms of having quick understanding about the character3. It also describe/encodes the idioms/phrases used4.

 

CREATION OF NEW WORDS:

Pt. Kishor Limaye has coined new Sanskrit words and terms (Technical and non-technical) for the words/terms and concepts from the field of Space Science. There is an appendix called – ‘अब्दुल कलाम महाभागस्य Wings of Fire इति मूलचरित्रे प्रयुक्ताङ्ग्लतान्त्रिकशब्दाः तथा तेषां कृते किशोरलिमयेविरचिते अग्निसम्भवम् इति काव्ये प्रयुक्ता: संस्कृतशब्दा:’. For ‘technical aerodynamics’, the composer has used the word - तान्त्रिकविमानगतिशीलता, for ‘aero structure design’ – विमानरचनासमनुविधानम् similarly for ‘Theoretical Aerodynamics’ – सैद्धान्तिकविमानगतिशीलता, for ‘Motion & Movement’ - गतिः आन्दोलनं , for ‘Slide & Flow’ अवसर्पणं प्रवाह: , for ‘Intellectual Fervor’ बुद्धिगविष्टिः etc.

 

While giving these endnotes, Pt. Kishor Limaye has given the reference of the particular cantos, verse number, page number from ‘wings of fire’ etc. With this, the poet has come up with 108 new Sanskrit words like द्विपक्षवर्गविमानम्, एकच्छद/एकपक्ष वर्गविमानम्, पुच्छरहितं विमानम्, तान्त्रिककेन्द्रम्, डयनाय योग्यम्, पराध्वनिकलक्ष्यभेद्रीविमानम्, वैचित्र्यनियोजनम्, योद्धाविमानायुधसाधनानां परीक्षणकेन्द्रम्, विमानसम्भार:, विवृतिः, उष्णकटिबन्धमूल्याङ्कनम्, डीएआरटीप्रकल्प:

 

CREATION OF NEW WORDS:

There is another interesting appendix called – श्री किशोर लिमयेमहाभागविरचित अग्रिसम्भवम् इति डॉक्टर अब्दुल कलाम महाभागचरितागत विविध सम्बन्धित संस्थानां संक्षिप्त विस्तारित नामानि which has the basic abbreviations for different institutes and organisations that Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam had an association with. Pt. Kishor Limaye also used those abbreviations in Agnisambhavam Mahākāvya. He also used his newly coined words and phrases (nomenclatures) for the same.

No

Institute/Organisations and Abbreviation

Used Sanskrit Nomenclature

1.

Indian Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR)

भारतीयाकाशशोधसंसद्5

2.

Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launch Station (TERLS)

निरक्षमग्निबाणप्रक्षेपणकेन्द्रम्6

3.

Space Science & Technology Centre

विज्ञानतन्त्रज्ञानाकाशकेन्द्रम्7

4.

Physical Research Laboratory

भौतिकीशोधसंस्था8

5.

Defense Research & Development (DRDO)

डीआर्डीओ9

6.

Shriharikota Rocket Launch Station (SHAR)

शारकेन्द्रम्10

7.

Indian National Science Academy (INSA)

इन्सा11

 

CONCLUSION:

‘Agnisambhavam' Sanskrit Mahākāvya of Pt. Kishor Limaye encourages the compositions, versified translations, and study and in Sanskrit, as a tool to initiate, motivate readers, popularize the language, research outlook & interdisciplinary approach in studies like Sanskrit and Science.

 

Pt. Sri. Kishor Limaye’s ‘Agnisambhavam' Mahākāvya is an example set of modern Mahākāvya where the ancient tool of composing Mahākāvya is amalgamated with modern techniques like using research methodologies. This attempt can be seen and to be noted as a pioneering and emerging trend in Sanskrit which will appetite Sanskrit composers in coming future.

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

The author has no conflicts of interest regarding this investigation.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

The authors would like to thank Pt. Kishor Limaye, Prof. Kashinath Hota, Prof. Radhavallabh Tripathi and Dr. Sachin Gadekar for their kind support, suggestions and corrections for this paper.

 

REFERENCE:

1.     Sāhityadarpaṇa 6.399-321

2.     Canto no. – 1, Parivāraprakaraṇam (परिवारप्रकरणम्)

3.     आशीआम्माMother of Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam (1st Sarga – परिवारप्रकरणम्, shloka no – 28)

4.     निदर्शनं भीतियुक्तमयोग्यंA fear-ridden vision of destiny (1st Sarga – परिवारप्रकरणम्, shloka no – 60)

5.     6th Sarga, shloka no - 01

6.     6th Sarga, shloka no - 41

7.     6th Sarga, shloka no - 48

8.     6th Sarga, shloka no - 49

9.     7th Sarga, shloka no - 30

10.   7th Sarga, shloka no - 49

11.   8th Sarga, shloka no – 01

 

 

 

 

Received on 11.03.2023        Modified on 13.07.2023

Accepted on 03.11.2023        © A&V Publication all right reserved

Int. J. Rev. and Res. Social Sci. 2023; 11(4):221-224.

DOI: 10.52711/2454-2687.2023.00037